Paleoclimate data show how past ecosystems responded to a range of climate and environmental changes and provide an overview of their resilience.The resulting understanding of how natural systems respond to climate forcing can help guide policy makers and managers as they make plans to adapt to climate change.It subsequently evolved into the most powerful method of dating late Pleistocene and Holocene artifacts and geologic events up to about 50,000 years in age.The radiocarbon method is applied in many different scientific fields, including archeology, geology, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, and paleoclimatology.Two comprehensive chapters on dating methods provide the foundation for all paleoclimatic studies and are followed by up-to-date coverage of ice core research, continental geological and biological records, pollen analysis, radiocarbon dating, tree rings and historical records.New methods using alkenones in marine sediments and coral studies are also described.We began our discussion of absolute dating by saying that sedimentation rates could not be relied on for absolute dating.Preface Acknowledgments Paleoclimatic Reconstruction Introduction Sources of Paleoclimatic information Levels of Paleoclimatic analysis Modeling in Paleoclimatic Research Climate and Climatic Variation The Nature of Climate and Climatic Variation The Climate System Feedback Mechanisms Energy Balance of the Earth and Its Atmosphere Timescales of Climatic Variation Variations of the Earth's Orbital Parameters Dating Methods I Introduction and Overview Radioisotopic Methods Dating Methods II Paleomagnetism Dating Methods involving Chemical Changes Biological Dating Methods Ice Cores Introduction Stable Isotope analysis Dating Ice Cores Paleoclimatic Reconstruction From Ice Cores Marine Sediments and Corals Introduction Paleoclimatic Information From Biological Material in Ocean Cores Oxygen Isotope Studies of Calcareous Marine Fauna Relative Abundance Studies Paleotemperature Records From Alkenones Dissolution of Deep-Sea Carbonates Paleoclimatic Information From Inorganic Material in Ocean Cores Coral Records of Past Climate Thermohaline Circulation of the Oceans Ocean Circulation Changes and Climate Over the Last Glacial-Interglacial Cycle Changes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: The Role of the Oceans Orbital Forcing: Evidence From the Marine Record Non-Marine Geological Evidence Introduction Loess Periglacial Features Snowlines and Glaciation Thresholds Mountain Glacier Fluctuations Lake-Level Fluctuations Lake Sediments Speleothems Non-Marine Biological Evidence Introduction Former Vegetation Distribution From Plant Macrofossils Insects Pollen analysis Introduction The Basis of Pollen Analysis How Rapidly Does Vegetation Respond to Changes in Climate?
One argument in favor of the absolute dating methods presented in the preceding articles is that they should work in principle.
In addition, 10% of the coral must be chemically leached prior to dissolution to remove adsorbed modern CO (sub 2) .
Researchers from the USGS, US Naval Research Laboratory, the College of William & Mary, and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science prepare to section and sample a 20 meter long sediment core collected in Chesapeake Bay by the R/V Marion Dufresne.
, is an essential textbook for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students studying climatology, paleoclimatology and paleooceanography worldwide, as well as a valuable reference for lecturers and researchers, appealing to archaeologists and scientists interested in environmental change.
Undergraduates, researchers, lecturers, professionals and classes in archeology, palynology, geology, geosciences, geological research methods, paleoecology, paleooceanography, paleoclimatology, climatology, climate modeling, glaciology, geomorphology, geography, earth sciences, environmental sciences, oceanography, astronomy, meteorology and Quaternary sciences; archeologists, scientists, and government and agency officials who deal with issues of global environmental change.